So the witness testimony necessary to establish a miracle would need to be greater than that which established the natural law in the first place. Since this never happens, no evidence is sufficient to make probable or establish the occurrence of a violation of a natural law, so it is always unreasonable to believe that such a violation has occurred. One objection is that miracles are not in fact violations of natural laws.
Natural laws are descriptive rather than prescriptive; they describe what will, or likely will, occur or not occur under certain specifiable conditions. If what one means by a violation of the laws of nature is just an exception to usual processes in the natural world, however, this objection is unwarranted. This leads back to the issue of whether it is ever reasonable to believe that an exception to the usual processes in the natural world has occurred, and also whether it can be established that God has directly acted in the world. Hume does not attempt to demonstrate that miracles are a metaphysical impossibility.
His approach is an epistemic one: to show that there is never sufficient evidence to warrant belief in a miracle.
Determining the probability of an event is a rather complex undertaking, and simply utilizing the frequency of an occurrence to determine its probability, as Hume apparently does, simply will not do. Establishing the a priori probability of a miracle without the background information of, for example, the existence of God, the nature of God, the purposes and plans of God, and so on, is impossible. If one had such knowledge, a particular miracle may turn out to be highly probable.
Ripe for colonialism
Recent discussions of miracles by philosophers of religion have often focused on the concept of natural law, probability theory, and the role of religion as evidence for a particular religion or for belief in God. Philosophy of religion is a flourishing field. Beyond those specific areas described above, there are also a number of important currents emerging, including feminist and continental approaches, renewed interest in medieval philosophy of religion, and an emphasis on the environment, race and ethnicity, and science and faith.
Chad Meister Email: chad. Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion. Religious Language and Belief a. Logical Positivism The practice of philosophy, especially in the analytic tradition, places emphasis on precision of terms and clarity of concepts and ideas. Realism and Non-realism After the collapse of positivism, two streams emerged in philosophy of religion regarding what religious language and beliefs are about: realism and non-realism.
Religious Diversity In the West, most work done in philosophy of religion historically has been theistic. Religious Pluralism One response to religious diversity is to deny or minimize the doctrinal conflicts and to maintain that doctrine itself is not as important for religion as religious experience and that the great religious traditions are equally authentic responses to Ultimate Reality. Religious Relativism A second way of responding to the conflicting claims of the different traditions is to remain committed to the truth of one set of religious teachings while at the same time agreeing with some of the central concerns raised by pluralism.
Religious Exclusivism In contrast to pluralism and relativism is a third response to the conflicting truth claims of the religions: exclusivism. Arguments for and against the Existence of God It is generally the case that religious adherents do not hold their religious convictions because of well-articulated reasons or arguments which support those convictions. Ontological Arguments First developed by Saint Anselm of Canterbury — , ontological arguments take various forms.
Proslogion , chapter II, 54 Since it would be a contradiction to affirm that the greatest possible being does not exist in reality but only in the mind because existing in reality is greater than existing in the mind , one is logically drawn to the conclusion that God must exist. Cosmological Arguments Cosmological arguments begin by examining some empirical or metaphysical fact of the universe, from which it then follows that something outside the universe must have caused it to exist.
Oxford, Blackwell, , 76 An objection raised against both the Thomistic- and the Leibnizian-type arguments is that they are demanding explanations which are unwarranted. Based on these dilemmas, the argument can be put in the following logical form: Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. The universe began to exist. Therefore, the universe has some kind of cause of its existence. The cause of the universe is either an impersonal cause or a personal one. The cause of the universe is not impersonal. Therefore, the cause of the universe is a personal one, which we call God.
Teleological Arguments Teleological arguments in the East go back as far as C. The works of nature, such as the human hand, resemble artifacts. Thus the works of nature are probably the products of design. Furthermore, the works of nature are much more in number and far greater in complexity. Therefore, the works of nature were probably the products of a grand designer—one much more powerful and intelligent than a human designer.
The Challenge of Science Over the last several hundred years there has been tremendous growth in scientific understanding of the world in such fields as biology, astronomy, physics, and geology. The Coherence of Theism Philosophical challenges to theism have also included the claim that the very concept of God makes no sense—that the attributes ascribed to God are logically incoherent either individually or collectively.
Problems of Evil and Suffering a. Logical Problems Perhaps the most compelling and noteworthy argument against theism is what is referred to as the problem of evil.
Evidential Problems Evidential arguments attempt to demonstrate that the existence of evil in the world counts as inductive evidence against the claim that God exists. Theodicy A theodicy, unlike a defense, takes on the burden of attempting to vindicate God by providing a plausible explanation for evil. The Hiddenness of God A related problem is that of divine hiddenness. The argument can be stated concisely this way: If there is a God, he is perfectly loving. If a perfectly loving God exists, reasonable nonbelief does not occur. Reasonable nonbelief occurs.
So no perfectly loving God exists from 2 and 3. Karma and Reincarnation Non-theistic religions have also offered accounts of evil, including its nature and existence, specifically with respect to suffering. Conclusion Philosophy of religion is a flourishing field. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Alston, W. Perceiving God. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Anderson, Pamela Sue. Oxford: Blackwell, Insole, eds. Aldershot: Ashgate, Anselm of Canterbury. Anselm: Basic Writings. Beilby, James K. Naturalism Defeated? Bergmann, Michael. Bergmann, Michael and Michael Rea. Bowker, John.
Problems of Suffering in Religions of the World. Byrne, Peter. London: Macmillan, Caputo, John. Clack, Beverly and Brian R. Clayton, John. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Coakley, Sarah. Powers and Submissions: Spirituality, Philosophy, and Gender. Collins, Robin. Moreland, eds. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology. Collins, Francis. Copan, Paul. Loving Wisdom: Christian Philosophy of Religion. Craig, W. The Kalam Cosmological Argument. New York: Barnes and Noble, Craig, William Lane. The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz.
Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology. Cupitt, Don. Taking Leave of God. Norwich: SCM Press, Davies, Brian. The Reality of God and the Problem of Evil. London: Continuum, Davis, Stephen T. Christian Philosophical Theology. Dennett, Daniel. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. Dombrowski, D. Rethinking the Ontological Argument. Draper, Paul. Everitt, Nicholas. The Non-Existence of God. London: Routledge, Fales, E.
Fischer, John Martin. God, Freedom, and Foreknowledge. Gellman, Jerome. Experience of God and the Rationality of Theistic Belief. Goetz, Stewart and Charles Taliaferro. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, Griffiths, Paul J. Problems of Religious Diversity. On Being Buddha. Gutting, Gary. Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism. Harris, Sam. Norton, Helm, Paul. Faith and Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Hick, John. Rational Theistic Belief without Proof.
Philosophy of Religion. Evil and the God of Love. New edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan, Howard-Snyder, Daniel. The Evidential Argument from Evil. Howard-Snyder, Daniel Paul Moser, ed. Divine Hiddenness. Hume, David. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Second edition. Richard H. Popkin, ed. Le Poidevin, Robin. Leslie, John. Mackie, J. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Martin, Michael. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Meister, Chad.
Introducing Philosophy of Religion. Meister, Chad and Paul Copan, eds. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion. London: Routledge, ; second edition Moreland, J. Consciousness and the Existence of God.
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Morris, Thomas V. The Logic of God Incarnate. Moser, Paul. Nielsen, Kai. Naturalism without Foundations. Buffalo: Prometheus Press, Oxford, Blackwell, Oppy, Graham. Ontological Arguments and Belief in God. Arguing About Gods. Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. Phillips, D. Religion without Explanation. Religion and the Hermeneutics of Contemplation. Pike, Nelson.
Plantinga, Alvin. Does God Have a Nature? Warrant: The Current Debate. Warrant and Proper Function. Warranted Christian Belief. Plantinga, Alvin and Michael Tooley. Knowledge of God. Rea, Michael. Rundle, Bede. Rowe, William. The Cosmological Argument. Runzo, Joseph. Savage, C. Schellenberg, John. Prolegomena to Philosophy of Religion. The Wisdom to Doubt. Schloss, Jeffrey and Michael Murray, eds. Sharma, Arvind.
Western Religions Essay
A Hindu Perspective on the Philosophy of Religion. New York: St. Soskice, Janet M.
Metaphor and Religious Language. Stiver, Dan R. The Philosophy of Religious Language. Stump, Eleonore. Wandering in Darkness: Narrative and the Problem of Suffering. Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism. Providence and the Problem of Evil.
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Religions of the World
New York: Oxford University Press, God: A Guide for the Perplexed. Oxford: Oneworld, The Big Questions in Science and Religion. Why There Almost Certainly is a God. Aeon email newsletters are issued by the not-for-profit, registered charity Aeon Media Group Ltd Australian Business Number 80 This Email Newsletter Privacy Statement pertains to the personally identifying information you voluntarily submit in the form of your email address to receive our email newsletters.
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Edited by Sam Dresser. Since the dawn of anthropology, sociology and psychology, religion has been an object of fascination. And long before the advent of the modern social sciences, philosophers such as Xenophanes, Lucretius, David Hume and Ludwig Feuerbach have pondered the origins of religion. In the century since the founding of the social sciences, interest in religion has not waned — but confidence in grand theorising about it has. Today, such sweeping claims about religion are looked upon skeptically, and a circumscribed relativism has instead become the norm.
However, a new empirical approach to examining religion — dubbed the cognitive science of religion CSR — has recently perturbed the ghosts of theoretical grandeur by offering explanations for religious beliefs and practices that are informed by theories of evolution and therefore involve cognitive processes thought to be prevalent, if not universal, among human beings.
This approach, like its Victorian predecessors, offers the possibility of discovering universal commonalities among the many idiosyncracies in religious concepts, beliefs and practices found across history and culture. But unlike previous efforts, modern researchers largely eschew any attempt to provide a single monocausal explanation for religion, arguing that to do so is as meaningless as searching for a single explanation for art or science.
These categories are just too broad for such an analysis. For critics of the cognitive science of religion, this approach repeats the mistakes of the old grand theorists, just dressed up in trendy theoretical garb. The charge is that researchers are guilty of reifying the concept of religion as a universal, an ethnocentric approach that fails to appreciate the cultural diversity of the real world. They argue that it is inextricably Western and therefore loaded with assumptions related to the Abrahamic religious institutions that dominate in the West. There is much that is valid in such critiques.
It is important to highlight the tendency of North American and European scholars to associate religion with the endorsement of professed beliefs, regular participation in religious services, hierarchical institutions and exclusive membership. All of these are features of Abrahamic traditions, but none are essential to religious belief and practice worldwide. To demonstrate the limitations with the dominant Western concepts of religion, we must examine religion in a non-Western context; for example, in Japan, where I have lived for the past four years, conducting research on collective rituals and bonding.
The vast majority of the Japanese population profess to have no strong religious beliefs, and there are few who regularly attend religious services. Regardless, many people happily partake in events and festivals arranged by multiple religious traditions. So is Japan just a non-religious society, like many surveys and some scholars claim?
Or do we instead need to broaden our assumptions about what, in fact, constitutes religion? A s snow falls in the small town of Kikonai in northern Japan, a crowd gathers in the courtyard of a Shinto shrine. They are focused on the entrance of the shrine building, which is nestled picturesquely against the side of a mountain. Cultural practices influence the way we perceive the world. A major issue that is affected by culture is sexuality. A subtopic of sexuality is, slut shaming.
My outside. As such, modern westerns have chosen this aspect as a point of subversions with examples such as Blazing Saddles , Django Unchained , and The Magnificent Seven Blazing Saddles serves as a merging of the Ranch and Marshal narratives and is ostensibly meant to shed light on the absurdity of racism but also manages to provide a scathing critique of a common archetype of the Classical Western: the Rancher.
In more recent years there have been attempts to combine the views and concepts of western and non-western religious philosophies. For example, the Kyoto school of philosophers attempted to combine the phenomenology of Husserl with the insights of Zen Buddhism. Largely, most of the philosophers belonging to this school of thought were heavily influenced by the German philosophers, specifically the works of Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Heidegger.
In addition, many engaged their cultural resources to. Although it will examine both for and against, the essay will reach a decision on whether or not Western Europe is secularised. This is relatively true in Western Europe, due to industrialisation and new technological and scientific research. Enlightenment Attitudes Towards Religion Scientific and philosophical innovations during the 18th century brought about a new breed of thinkers.
They were radicals who sought to displace the authority of religion. Driven by reason, enlightenment. In almost every religion and civilization women's status was not equal to that of a man's. Women in most cultures are looked at as subservient, obedient creatures that were put on this world for very few reasons, mainly to bear children and do what their husbands require of them.
In fact, religions are a big part of the reason of this oppression due to the religion's reinforcement and justification of patriarchal. Islamophobia by nature is racist, it makes general assumptions of a large group of people who share a common belief system. Making any generalization of the followers of Islam or of Islam itself, will oversimplify what is a diverse and complex global religious tradition. It is a widely accepted fact that religion is not limited to Christianity and Islam. Instead, it also incorporates issues such as the fanaticism of expertise, worldly humanism, the consumer culture as well as the consecration to Thursday Night Rugby among other illustrations.
Analysis of the historical definition of religion, it has been found that the five core features of religion are also met by politics. For this reason, it is hard to distinguish religion from a policy. As pointed out by the. By religion we mean that it has a concept of the profane, the sacred, and approaches to the sacred. It has been established in India, China, Japan and other eastern cultures for almost years and has gained a strong foothold in North America and Europe in the past few centuries.
However, one might ask; what fate would Buddhism face had Siddartha Guatama been born in modern times; or more. Secularization theory has for many years propounded and boosted the self-confidence of non-believers and left religious individuals feeling alienated and outdated. However, in recent years, sociologists of religion have become increasingly sceptical about traditional secularization theory.
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Social and political debate about religious and emotionally charged. Purple Hibiscus examines the corruption that has gripped Africa as well as the effects of Western religion. All the changes the natives had to go through, are clearly seen in excerpts of Feng Guifen, Afghani, and Gandhi. Each of these men describe the different aspects. Religious Rituals There are many religions that are practice around the world such as Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism just to name a few and they all have similar traditions, beliefs and rituals based on revelation from a supreme being, depending on the people and culture that practice and follow those religions on a daily basis.
In western cultures which predominately practices Christian religion, churches, prayers, bible studies and baptism as an infant or an adult are some. There really is not a clear definition of religion people and scholars throughout the ages all agree that a definition that constitutes a definition of religion has still not been reached.
However, one can define religion is the belief in. Throughout the novel there are many references to both Christian and Islamic prejudices and intolerance towards the other religion. My first source, a collection. Gender roles and the definition of equality for gender differs within various religions and ideologies. Beliefs in the western, capitalist countries attempt to demonstrate a more fluid and open-minded approach to both genres of identification, however gender roles within religions such as Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism fluctuate in both eastern and western cultures as traditional patriarchal and hierarchy structure still exists today.
Within this topic, I explore and compare how both capitalists. Question 2 Non-Western views and Western Views have both similar and different approaches to their views on the environment. The biggest difference is the view that the Western religions have domination over that of nature whereas non-Western religions teach that man has to respect nature. Karma is something that is taken into account when it concerns the environment and animals that.
We cannot deny that the expansion of Hinduism had great help from the West. The colonizers, with the help of the high status Indian castes had a hand in popularising, translating, and distributing texts, as well as naming the religion, arguably their biggest contribution. Hinduism, derived from the. There are five major religions that are practiced in the world today.
Hinduism developed first, then Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and finally Islam. Both Eastern religions began in India, although. While the Western world today is mainly interested in radical Islam and its posing a serious challenge to civil liberties as well as democratic countries all over the world, Muslim countries are to bipolarities within themselves. One of the most expressed forms of the conflict in many Muslim countries today takes place between secular and Islamic discourse. Religion Toolkit Response p. It tries to show its readers that religion may be a much broader and undefined topic than they might be expecting.
The Religion Toolkit discusses how the academic study of religion differs from the normative study of religion, how religion is not clearly described, and how Religious Studies compares. Through the different approaches that anthropologists took in regards to religion, anthropologists thoroughly focused on the different aspects of religion through the theories conducted in the 19th and 20th century. These different theories conducted in the nineteenth and twentieth century allowed anthropologists to look at religion as a product of the interpenetrations of cultural systems rather than a unified system.
Religion was viewed as a belief in all societies and is highly visible. It is learnt as a person grows. Cone argues that if god presented himself as white, it would make theology useless. If this were the case, theology would exist purely as a means of validating whiteness and oppression. He argues that it is only if this symbol is. It is important to study religion to help us understand.
Marriage is a construct that almost unanimously comes from religion. The typical wedding in western society is in a church with a priest leading the vowels. Various people may get married with little to no religious affiliation, but religion still takes a prominent role in the act of marriage.
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