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The basic format for an in-text citation is: Author Last Name, year. Examples One author: Where the Wild Things Are Sendak, is a depiction of a child coping with his anger towards his mom. Toggle action bar FAQ Actions. Print Tweet Share on Facebook Was this helpful? Comments 3. This was very useful for me! I was having a really hard time finding information on how to mention an article title AND the author in text in APA so this was very helpful!!!
If I just mention that I used a book to teach a topic do I have to include it in the reference list? Franw, if it is a source that informs your paper in any way, or if your reader would have reason to look it up, then you should include a full reference list entry for the book. Add a public comment to this FAQ Entry. Live Chat. MLA: Fangmann, Alexander. World Socialist Web Site. APA: Fangmann, A. Illinois Supreme Court strikes down pension cuts. Fangmann, A.
Many organizations maintain websites hosting information about the organization or about the field that they work in. Some examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies. The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals. But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present.
Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution. Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website.
This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization. The final item is the date that you accessed the site. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. APA: The horcrux of love. This category is a little hard to define. Unlike online journals or other periodicals, topic websites are not usually revised on a regular schedule, although material may be added from time to time. Finally, topic websites may also overlap with private websites, which often focus on a single issue that their author is passionate about.
If you take these precautions, topic websites are sometimes useful for giving a broad overview or putting you on the track of more authoritative sources. APA: Mohanraj, M.
The early years: Mary Anne Mohanraj. Private websites come in many forms. Some announce themselves as fan sites, indicating that the author has an intense interest but no special background or credentials. Still others are quite professional in presentation, with authors who profess or demonstrate vast experience.
Just a few years ago, unreliable websites were often riddled with typographical errors or burdened with amateurish design and graphics. For the purpose of academic research, most private websites should be considered popular sources, which can be useful as sources of opinion but should generally not be relied on for authoritative information.
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Private websites also raise issues of privacy, as some sites that require password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research. Follow this by the title of the website, if applicable. Some of these details may be hard to identify. In the example above, for instance, it was not possible to determine when the specific section of the website was last updated. Only the date of access is given. APA: Martin, G. A few more last words [Weblog post].
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Even when hosted by a recognized organization, most blogs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. But in some cases, it may not be necessary to give the site sponsor. When deciding whether to include the site sponsor, use your judgment: if the blog pursues a theme in common with the sponsor, list the sponsor. The formats below cover the most common ways to cite video clips that were published online on sites like YouTube and Vimeo. Video that was first published elsewhere but accessed online on sites like Netflix and Hulu is cited differently.
See the notes that follow for more information.
YouTube, 23 Sept. Retrieved Aug. Booker, J [jbook]. Like other film and video formats, conventions for citing online video are less fixed than those for print or other kinds of online sources. The citation for a video clip that was first published online typically attributes the clip to the individual who posted it on the Internet. For example, a film that is released online or an ongoing web series, may be more accurately attributed to the director or actors than the person who uploaded it to the Internet. MLA: Levy, Michael. APA: Levy, M. Re: your canon? There are many electronic forums that allow users with a specific interest or affiliation to discuss topics with each other.
Some of these are restricted to members of a group, or of a specific course. Many Yale courses, for instance, provide forum discussions through the Classesv2 server. Other such discussions are open to any interested party. Although discussions limited to professionals in a field may be more authoritative, in general you should probably treat material from these forums as popular rather than scholarly sources. Note: Many such forums expect communications to be private.
Citing Your Sources: Chicago: Author-Date (17th)
Follow that with the most specific identifying information you can give about the particular post. Depending on the type of discussion, there may be subject headings or specific message numbers on a given post. You may or may not be able to tell the posting date. In MLA style, include the name of the sponsoring forum. Since most of these discussions do not supervise postings, do not put the sponsor name in italics. Follow this with the date you accessed the material.
Even when membership is restricted to a particular organization, most listervs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. The last item in your listing—the electronic address—brings up one point on which MLA and APA styles differ starkly: in APA, if the posting cannot be retrieved, you cite it in your paper as a personal communication and do not include it in your list of References.
Try to include the archive address. MLA: Donahue, Tiane. APA: Do not include in list of References. Cite in your paper as a personal communication. Note: Chicago style footnotes give full information for private messages, but does not list them in the Bibliography. And even in these cases, the informality of email makes most authors much less careful about checking facts and conclusions, rendering the information less authoritative. Most email messages should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. Note: Most people consider email to be private.
If you received the message as a forward, the obligation to seek permission is even more urgent, as the original author likely has no reason to expect you to use the message in your own work. If you use email in your paper, cite it as a personal communication in your text, and do not list it at the end. For Chicago style, private messages are given full citation in a footnote, but not included in the Bibliography.
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APA: King Arthur. But Wikipedia merits additional attention because of its recent growth and popularity. Some professors will warn you not to use Wikipedia because they believe its information is unreliable. As a community project with no central review committee, Wikipedia certainly contains its share of incorrect information and uninformed opinion.
http://www.stringrecordings.com/img/textbook/unwelcome-harvest-agriculture-and-pollution-natural-resource-management-set.php In this sense, it should be treated as a popular rather than scholarly source. But the main problem with using Wikipedia as an important source in your research is not that it gets things wrong. Some of its contributors are leaders in their fields, and, besides, some print sources contain errors. The problem, instead, is that Wikipedia strives for a lower level of expertise than professors expect from Yale students. As an encyclopedia, Wikipedia is written for a common readership.
But students in Yale courses are already consulting primary materials and learning from experts in the discipline. In this context, to rely on Wikipedia—even when the material is accurate—is to position your work as inexpert and immature. If you use Wikipedia for general background, check several other sources before using the material in your essays. You may also be able to track opinions or deeper ideas back to their original sources. In many cases, your course readings will contain similar ideas in better, more quotable language. Many student writers are tempted to use Wikipedia for definitions of terms the same way a beginning writer might quote a dictionary.
But in most cases, a definition drawn or paraphrased from the primary course readings—or from other scholarly sources—will be more effective. Of course, if you do use language or information from Wikipedia, you must cite it—to do otherwise constitutes plagiarism. The advice here is not to hide what Wikipedia contributes to your ideas, but rather to move beyond Wikipedia and write from a more knowledgeable, expert stance.
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